Well, hello and welcome to the
Ask Me Anything about Empower 3 live webinar. I’m Neil Lander,
your host for today. So welcome everyone,
and thank you for taking the time to
join us this morning– at least, it’s morning here
on the East Coast of the US. So this is the first time that
we’re holding this webinar and our plan is
moving forward to do these on a quarterly basis. And we will keep
you apprised of when the next one will be coming up. So what I’m going
to do is I’m going to start out with some
questions that we received when you registered for the event. And I’ll talk about
those, and we’ll provide the answers for how
to do the things that you were asking about. Then we’re going
to go to Empower. And I’m going to take some live
questions from the audience, and hopefully provide the
answers that you’re seeking. And then we’ll have a little
summary, and we’ll wrap up. So just a couple of notes. Please use the
Question and Answer feature to submit questions
during the webinar. And because we have a
limited amount of time, we will get to as many
questions as time allows. Any questions that
we don’t get to I will have a copy of at the end. And we’ll write
to each one of you personally with the
answers to the questions that we don’t get to
during this session. Upon conclusion,
there’ll be follow up email that you’ll receive,
which will include a link to the recorded
webinar and, again, questions that we couldn’t get
to during the event. So since we’re
doing this remotely, you can see my
picture there and also my email address,
which I believe you have but just in case. I have a middle initial
in my email address, so please be sure to put that
in so I receive your email. And the URL for the Tip
of the Week blog which is waters.com/empowertips. And feel free to share
that with your colleagues. I have been with
Waters since 1994. And when I first started out,
I was a technical support specialist in the field in
the eastern part of the United States. I then joined the
customer training group. And I actually spent
a number of years there doing software
training originally on our Millennium
software product, which is the
predecessor to Empower. And then I actually managed the
group for a number of years. In January of 2015, I moved
into the informatics group, and I’ve been there. And I provide a lot of
internal support for Empower, as well as working with
customers, such as yourselves, to hopefully come
up with solutions to make your life easier
in the laboratory. So as I always say,
email me with questions. I’ll be happy to do my best to
get back to you as quickly as I can with answers. So now let’s move on to some of
the questions that we received. Again, when you
registered for the event, these are some of the
questions that we received. And I thought I would start
by going through these and showing you the
solutions to these questions. So the first question
says, my method calls for averaging the area of
replicate injections of my peak and then using the averaged
area to quantitate the amount of analyte in the sample. How do I set up
Empower to do this? Now this is a great
question, and I’ll tell you why it’s a great question. Typically, we run
replicates of the sample. And we quantitate each
individual sample. And then we calculate
the average result. What this person
wants to do is they want to average the area
for the replicate injection and have that compare to
the calibration curve, and quantitate that way around. So it’s really a great question. So what we need to
do is, first of all, we have to create a
custom field, which is an intersample calculation
to get the average area. And so the syntax in
this particular case for the intersample
calculation is label.injectionn umber.channel.function(field)
and in this case, the function is average. So we want to average
the area of the peak for the replicate injections. You’ll notice also I
have set the sample type to unknowns only,
because we only want the average for the samples. Now the next part– and this
will give us the average. So then let’s take a look at
the next part to the answer. So here if we think about
the equation for a line that we learned in some
math class many years ago. We know it’s y equals mx plus
b, m being the slope and b being the y-intercept. Well, in Empower it’s listed
as y equals bx plus a. So b is the slope and
a is the y-intercept. So if we solve for x, which is
our amount or concentration, our equation is x equals
y minus a divided by b. So the math isn’t
terribly complicated. Now what we need to do is we
want the y, or the response, to be the average area. So that first custom field will
calculate the average area. Now if we use that
in the equation here, then we’ll be able
to solve for x which will be the concentration
or the amount based on that average area. Now one thing I
recommend to you is that I always reference
the very last standard. So if I’m running
five standards, I’ll reference the a and b
from the very last standard so that you are using the final
coefficients for this equation. Now we see the result. It
still calculates automatically the amount for the
individual sample. But now we see, for
the two injections of this particular sample,
we see the amount calculated based on the averaged area. So thanks for that
great question. That is really a great question. And by the way, anybody has
questions on any of the things you see here, please ask. Here’s the second question. And actually I’ve had
this one multiple times. Will Empower report the maximum
pressure of a chromatogram? So you know that on
most modern pumps you can have an additional
channel of data collected, which would be your
pressure trace. And we use that pressure
trace for diagnostic purposes many times. So if we wanted to report
the maximum pressure of a chromatogram, here’s
what we need to do. First of all, what
we want to do is we want to report the
pressure during the course of that chromatogram. So in the custom fields, if
you make a simple peak custom field, there is a
field called y value. And that will
allow you to report the y value of your
channel, whether it’s pressure, temperature,
whatever it is you happen to be collecting. Because you could collect
temperature as well. And so y value– and in these square
brackets, you’ll notice it says retention time. So that’s going to report the
pressure at every retention time across the chromatogram. Or in this case, it’s not
going to be a chromatogram. It’s a pressure trace. All right. And then I make
another custom field, which is a result custom
field that just says report the maximum pressure. So the first custom field
is going to report pressure throughout the run. This one is going to report
the maximum pressure. Well, let’s look at the results. So here are the results. Now, I didn’t show the
pressure trace here. It’s not terribly exciting. But what you can see here– and
this is in the review window. If you go to the results area
of the review window, which is the tool with the
little equals symbol, and you can see in
the peaks table, here are all the
individual pressures that Empower has recorded. And then if you look in the
chromatogram result table, there is the result
of my result custom field, the maximum pressure. And I just highlighted
the value here. You can see in the table
it’s going up, up up. There is the maximum. And then it comes down. And that maximum pressure
is documented here. So that’s a great question. And I’ve actually
had that a few times. So thanks for that good question All right, here’s another
very good question that came in with the registration. I want to learn how to prepare
the custom scoring reports that are included in several
Waters applications such as– and if you go to
the Waters website, and you type in the
number as you see here in the slide for
this app note, it will bring that app
note up for you. And he wants to– the goal is to implement a
systematic method development protocol. So this is a great question. And I’ve actually had some of
my colleagues here at Waters ask me the same thing. How do I create
that scoring report? Well, let’s first take a look. Here is a snippet of
the scoring report. And there are actually
several different types of scoring reports
that you can have. But this is one that’s
in the application note that was mentioned. And you can see what
happens is there are different parameters if I
was doing method development– different critical parameters,
such as the total number of peaks. We want to have the
maximum number of peaks. And we want to have good
resolution between the peaks. So you see it says
how many peaks have a resolution of greater
than or equal to 2.0. Of course, the better
the separation, the better the sensitivity. And the easier it
will be to quantitate at the various analytes. Total peaks tailing less
than or equal to 1.5. We want to have
symmetrical peaks. We don’t want to have
fronted or tailing peaks. So the lower that value,
again, the more symmetrical the peak is, the easier it
will be to integrate the peak and quantitate that peak. What’s the lowest resolution? What’s the minimum K prime? You know, in method
development, at least, when I was learning to do HPLC– which, granted, was
a long time ago– we would optimize our K prime
somewhere between 2 and 10. Anything less than two,
the peak is coming out too close to the solvent front. Anything greater than 10,
you’re waiting a long time for that peak to
come off the column. So we want to try
to optimize that. And here we can see
the smallest K primes. And then what’s the retention
time of the last peak. We’re always concerned that
when we develop a new method that we want to have a short
run time so that we can do as many samples as possible. So this report nicely summarizes
some of those key parameters so that we can pick
out the best conditions under which to run the method. So then the question
becomes where do all of these different
things come from. And each of these are
actually custom fields. And then those
custom fields have been incorporated into the
table within the report. So I thought, why don’t we
take a look at one of these, which is the resolution. And it’s a two
part custom field. And the first part is a
simple peak custom field, but it uses Boolean logic. And what Boolean
logic simply does is it says does something
meet a condition, yes or no. That’s all it is. So if it meets the condition, it
returns a one, which is a yes. If it doesn’t meet
that condition, it returns a zero,
which is a no. And you can have
it say pass, fail– you can actually put in whatever
text you’d like it to return. So here what we’re looking
at is is the USP resolution greater than or equal to two. And actually, it’s 2.0. So what’s going to happen
is for every integrated peak in the chromatogram it’s
going to look to see is the USP resolution for the
peak and the one in front of it greater than or equal to 2.0. So that’s going to return
a bunch of yeses and noes. And then what we do
is we simply add up all the ones that had a yes. So first we determine
is the resolution greater than or equal to 2.0. And for all of the ones
that meet that condition, we add up the total
number of peaks. So if I just go back
to the scoring report, you can see the
number of peaks– the total number
of peaks that meet that set of conditions in each
of these three experiments. And I didn’t go through
the rest of these, but they’re very,
very similar in terms of how you put them together. All right. So that’s a great question. Thank you for that question. So now with that
being done, it’s time to take questions
from the audience. And what I’m going to do is
I am going to share my screen so that you’ll be
able to see Empower. So let me do that. Hopefully we can all see that. OK. All right. Good. Excellent. All right. So let’s take a look at
some of the questions that are coming in here. The first one says, I sometimes
work with complex samples, and I need to set multiple
peak with threshold events. Is there a way to
estimate what values to put to detect a certain
peak of the peak width or a threshold? Perhaps some data
in the peak table? In essence, how to
figure out the peak width for a certain peak and
use that data to set peak width detection event,
same for threshold. So this is a great question. And actually, it’s not
an unusual question. Let me open up a project. And let’s go– I wonder if my screen
is a little bit too big. Let me just adjust
my screen size here. All right. So now, let’s go
take a chromatogram. And I’m just going to take
a very simple chromatogram because to answer this
question, we don’t necessarily need something terribly complex. So let’s just take
a chromatogram. OK. Now let me optimize
the screen for you so you can see things
reasonably well. OK. So now I could ask
the question are you using the
traditional algorithm or are you using the
ApexTrack algorithm. And it really doesn’t
matter because it works pretty similar in both cases. But let’s say that I was going
to work with the ApexTrack algorithm. And so if I was to go and
make a new processing method, I could choose my apex
algorithm or the traditional. And this is LC data,
so that’s fine. It’s two dimensional data. I click OK. And so what I could
do is the following. I could say I’m going to
go set my time over which I would like to have integration. So let’s say 0.6 to 4.5. And I come back, and
I click Integrate. OK. So now with ApexTrack,
it’s automatically determined the
optimum peak width and the optimum threshold. So now to the question
that was presented, how could I optimize in
peak width and threshold. So there’s a couple of
ways that we can do that. And let’s say that
we wanted to optimize the peak width for this
section of the chromatogram. We could highlight the peak. We could come up and click
the Peak Width button. Now in this case, it tells
me it’s the same value. But let’s say that
was a different value. Let’s say it was a value
of 10, for example. What I could then do is I
could come in before this peak, I could right-click, Add Event,
and wherever I right-click, it sets the time for that
particular event to start. And here in the list,
I have set peak width. And then I could
put in my new value. Let’s just say it was 10. Now just a point
of importance here, you notice there’s no stop time. Any timed event that begins
with the word [INAUDIBLE] will not have a stop time. So that means when I put that
event in from 3.3 minutes to the end of the chromatogram,
the peak width value Empower is going to use is 10. If I want to reset it, I
can put a second event in, and I can set it back. Or I can set it to
some other value. One thing I also
recommend is tick the box that says Show Integration
Events on Plot because that will give you a vertical marker
to show you where the event is. So if you need to
move it slightly, you can just drag the
line one way or the other. And then I go and
I click integrate. And I’ve optimized the peak
width for that particular peak. Same thing with the
detection threshold. If I was looking at a
portion of the baseline and I wanted to optimize the
threshold, I could zoom in. I could hit Threshold. And I can Optimize, and
then put in a value that would be appropriate for
that section of baseline. Once I do that, of course,
then I would hit Integrate. And we would see the effects
of any of these changes that we’ve made. Now one of the things
about threshold– well, one more piece
that I want to bring up. In the integration portion,
we have the liftoff percentage and the touchdown percentage. Now this is unique to ApexTrack. So this adjusts
how Empower looks for the starting
and the end point for the baseline to be drawn
in under the peak, which ultimately affects your areas
and heights that it calculates. So with these as well,
we could put in events. So here’s a global event. And the value is 0 by
default. If I change it to something else, it’s
going to affect globally when I hit integrate. If I want to change something
based on time, the same thing, I could right-click Add Event. And then I have the set liftoff
percentage and set touchdown percentage, which I can
add as events as well. So just to conclude, we
have our global values which we set here. And it’s the same for the
traditional algorithm. We could highlight a peak. We can check out what the
optimum peak width is. And then we can put
in a timed event to adjust the peak
width for that section of the chromatogram. OK? Great. So that’s a very good question. Thank you very much. Let’s go see what
our next question is. Can we do peak width
on the narrowest peak? Yes, of course. As a matter of fact, I know
in the traditional algorithm we always recommend when
you’re setting the peak width, integrate the narrowest peak
and click the Peak Width button. Here, I can show
you how to do that. It’s really pretty
straightforward. So if I was going
to make a method and I was going to use the
traditional algorithm, what I do is I just
draw in a baseline under the narrowest
peak of interest. I click the Peak Width button. And now it sets the peak
width to the narrowest peak. Now if you’re not sure which
one is the narrowest peak– this happens to be
an isocratic run, so of course I pick
the first peak. You could always add the
width field to your table. And if I click Integrate,
it shows me the width in seconds for all my peaks. And you can see of all the big
main peaks, that first one is indeed the narrowest peak. All right? Let’s see. Let’s take another question. What is the difference
between average by none, amount, or level in
components in the processing method? Great question. So to answer this,
let’s do the following. Let’s take the whole sample set. Let’s have a look at
the whole sample set. And the reason I’m doing
this is in this sample set, I’ve got three injections
of each standard. So this is a great question. If I go to make a
processing method– and here it makes no
difference whether you’re using traditional or ApexTrack. It’s independent of that. If I go to the Components
tab as the person is asking the question,
average by none– so that’s the default.
So what does that mean? So here I’ve got
three standards, three injections each. So what I’m going to
end up with is if– let’s go to a real chromatogram
there, not the blank. Here I’ve got three
main components. And let’s say I want
to quantitate all three components. So what I’m going to end
up with is three standards, three injections each. I am going to get three
calibration curves, each with nine points. That’s because this is set to
average by none, by default. OK. What about average by amount? What does that mean? So if I go to alter sample– and this is a little bit outside
of what you can see, I think. Let me size this a bit here. OK. So if I look at alter
sample for my sample set, and I click the
Amount tool, here I can see, hopefully,
for my three standards these are the amounts for the
three analytes in each vial. So if I say average by
amount, what’s going to happen is it is going to average
the response for the three replicate injections
for standard one. It’s going to average the
response for the three replicate injections of two. It’s going to do the
same thing for three. And then you’re going
to get a calibration curve with three average
points for each component. What about average by level? So in your sample set method,
there is a level field. Now in this case,
I didn’t use it. But if I came in and let’s say
I put in level one, level two, and level three. OK. So what does that mean and
what is that going to do? Again, if I say
average by level, it’s going to say, oh,
you’ve made three injections of the level one standard. And it’s going to average those. And it’ll be equivalent
to average by amount. But what if I call all of
these a level one standard? What’s then going to happen
if I say average by level? It’s going to look to any
standard with the same level and average them together. So in that case, I would
get a calibration curve with a one average point
based on the nine injections. Right? I hope that makes sense. OK. So let’s see. Where are we in the questions? We got lots of good
questions coming in. How to get a value
for peak width that would only integrate
the widest peak? Well, to do that I would say– let me go back to
the chromatogram so we can see the picture. This is probably
not a great example. If I was going to only integrate
the widest peak, depending on where the peak
was, what you could do is you could either optimize
the integration for that. Or you could set in a
very wide peak width to get it to
integrate that peak. But it would be far
easier in this case to perhaps just
ignore the other peaks and set up my integration
around that particular peak. So either A, increase
the peak width wide enough so that it only
picks up the wide one, or B, maybe just adjust
your parameters around the peak of interest,
ignoring the others. Here’s a great question. Why doesn’t the set
events have a stop time? What is the reasoning
behind this? Unfortunately, I don’t know. That’s the way it was designed. So the work around is to
simply put in another event to either reset it
to the original value or set it to a different value. OK? Let’s see what else do we have. How can I use export methods
to report system suitability and sample results
to LIMS system? I have export method
that will transfer sample results as selected
in the export method table. How can I have the
same method transfer the suitability information? How can I streamline
that information for certain
selective injections? So I would need a bit
more information there. My immediate response
would be if you’ve already got an export method that is
exporting your sample results, you could just modify
that export method to include the fields for
your system suitability, depending on what
it is you calculate for system suitability. Everybody has a
slightly different way that they define it. So for example– and again,
I need a little bit more information to give
you a proper answer. But let’s say we just make
an export method here, right? Let’s make an export method. So I’m just going
to give this a name. And I’ll define where I’m
going to export it to, which for this purpose is
not terribly important. But let’s do– let’s fill
in all the fields the way you would normally as
you make your method. Somewhere in here I
had an export folder. OK, we’ll just put it there. OK. And then you have the
ability to either report an individual result or
you could do a summary. So I would say based
on your question, if you wanted to
streamline things you could do a summary
by all so that it would summarize multiple samples. And then you can come
down to Export Table Data, tick the box, click Edit. And then you can decide what
fields you want to export. So let’s say as part of
your normal export method, you have something like
the name of the compound and maybe the concentration
of the compound, right? Now if you wanted to, you could
then go to the sys suit peak, and then you could pick the
system suitability fields that Empower reports. That is, of course,
assuming you have it turned on in your processing
method and it is calculated. And then we could begin to put
in things like our plate count, and our tailing
factor, and whatever else that might be important. So then those things would
be included in one report. If you wanted to have
a separate report and you wanted to report
system suitability on particular injections, as
I think you were describing in your question, then I
would have a separate export method that would only have
the system suitability fields. And then select the injections
made for system suitability, and export the results with this
particular method that would only concentrate on sys suit. So I need a little
bit more information. But you could certainly
include the sys suit. In your existing export method. Or you could make
a separate one, and then just export
the sys suit injections with that export method. I hope that makes sense. OK. So where are we now? Let’s see. Can export method transfer
system suitability information for the run? Yeah, that’s kind of what
we just talked about. So you know, with
export methods– there’s a couple of
ways you can export. You can make a report that
already contains your system suitability results, and
you could export that. Or, as I was just talking about,
you could go to the Fields tab when you make an export
method and select the fields that you want to export. And one thing I didn’t show,
but since we’re still here, I would put some sample
information along this. Otherwise, you won’t
know what sample it is. So you might want
to at least include the sample name and maybe
the injection number so that you have some
identification as to what it is you’re looking at. All right? So yeah, absolutely. Now, let’s see. How do you create a column
database using custom fields? A column database–
trying to see if I understand that question. It’s a great question, if
I’m interpreting the question correctly. So about a year ago– I’ll show you this– a colleague of mine–
oh, this is way too big. Let me size this better
so we can all see it. A colleague of mine came to me
with the following question. And I don’t know if this is
what you are alluding to. You can tell me. He said to me, I want to
be able to go into Empower, and put in a part
number for a column, and have it populate a
whole bunch of fields, like the length of the
column, the internal diameter, the particle size the
chemistry, whatever. And so I did that. And I’ll show you how it’s done. But I hope I’m interpreting
your question correctly. So if you see here, column
part number, if I click– I made a list of
fake part numbers but just to demonstrate the
purpose of how this works. And when I pick that
column part number, it populates the column length,
the column ID, and the particle size. Now, how do you
get that to work? And this is not as
complicated as it may seem. So let’s go over to
our Custom Fields tab in this particular
project and let’s look. So column part number is
a sample custom field. And it has data type enumerated. So let’s open this up, and I’ll
show you what this looks like. So it’s a sample custom field,
which means it’s per sample. And you can define this
in your sample set method, or you can define
this in Alter Sample after you’ve
collected your data. And the data type is enumerated. So what does that really mean? That means that I can
create a list of choices. So what I did was I made this. And I put in these
fake part numbers, but obviously, you could
put in the real part numbers for the
different columns you have in the laboratory. And so this allows me to
come in to the sample set method or Post Run and Alter
Sample, grab my sample set, go to alter sample. And when I click,
you notice how I was able to pick from the list. So that’s my initial
custom field. Now, how did the rest of the
custom fields work, right? Let’s take a look. So if we look at, for example– if I can find it in
my big list here– particle size. Here’s one of them. Let’s open that custom field. Let’s see what is this doing. So what I did was made another
sample custom field enumerated, but this time the data
source is calculated, meaning it’s going to
make a calculation here. Last example it was
just a keyboard entry. So here I have for
the four columns, here are the different
particle sizes– 1.7, 2, 5, and 10. So what happens
is the following. I use the Enum function in
this particular custom field. And it says what is this
here, this piece here. Let me just– let me
do something here. It’s hard to see this here. So I’m going to go
out on a limb here, and I’m going to
open Microsoft Word, and I’m going to paste
the formula into Word. Now, hopefully you can see
this a little bit better. Let me increase the font size. OK. So these are
Boolean expressions. Got a mathematical
function in there. It’s got a field from
Empower and a value. And remember from our
discussion earlier, a Boolean expression
is does something made a condition, yes or no. So what’s happening here is each
one of these little Booleans– does the column
part number equal to position zero, position
one, position two, or position three? And I’ll show you where
those positions come from. Now, only one of
these can be true. So enumerated
says, OK, evaluate, starting from the left
side to the right side, these expressions. The first one to
give a yes, stop. So if it equals to
column position 1, whatever part number
was in that position, that’s the one
it’s going to grab. OK? So if we go back and
we go to our column part number– just go right
back to it for one moment. These are the
positions here, OK? So back in my project, sample
set, I go into Alter Samples since I’ve already
collected my data. You see when I pick a
column part number– now I’m picking one in
the second position. It goes off and it says, oh,
it equals the second position. So it looks in the
table, and it says that’s the second
one in the list, So that’s particle size two. Now, are you limited to just
these three fields, length, ID, and particle size? No. You can put in as
many as you want. And once you make the initial
list of column part numbers, as you get new columns
in the laboratory, you can simply add to it. All right? So that’s a great question. Now I hope I’ve interpreted
your question correctly in terms of a column
database using custom fields. And if not, you have
my contact information. Don’t hesitate to
reach out to me, and we can get into more
of the details of what you’re hoping to do. OK, so let’s see what’s next. There’s a question that says I
have a small peak between peaks of interest and
want to calculate the resolution
between the two peaks ignoring the little
peak in between. OK, that’s another
really great question. And actually it’s
a question that does come up a fair amount. So I’m glad somebody
has asked that question. So let’s take this chromatogram
we were working with earlier. Even though it’s a
simple chromatogram, it will illustrate the
point quite nicely. So let me make a
new method here. I’ll just make a quick method. And again, I think
from about 0.6 to 4.5 will be adequate
for this purpose. And knowing this data, I’m
going to change the touchdown percentage because these
peaks tail a little bit. All right. And let’s see here. What if we take this peak here? It’s got an area of 21.17,
and let’s set the minimum area to that and we’ll integrate. OK. So now I’m going to
Fill From Result. And I’m just going to call the
peaks one, two, three, four. Good enough. So here’s my method. Give it a name. And we’ll just call this
November 15 for today. Good enough. Great. So I have a method
and it works well. Now, if I had a sample and I
integrate, all of a sudden I’ve got this little peak over here. It has no name. Maybe I wasn’t even
expecting this peak. And I want to get the resolution
between these two big peaks. Now classically,
resolution is defined as the resolution between a
peak and the one in front of it. So how we can get around that
is with the system suitability option. So I’ll turn on Sys. Suit. I’ll put in my void volume. And I’ll come over to
the Components tab, and we have a field called
Relative Resolution Reference right there. Let me move that field all the
way over here next to our peak names. So if I want to get the
resolution between peak three and peak two, ignoring
this peak, what I do is on the row for
peak three in the Rel. Resolution Reference field. I select peak two. I go back. I integrate. Calibrate in this case,
because it is a standard. And now I have the relative
resolution between peak three and peak two. Let’s get rid of the
scientific notation there. We don’t need that. And the resolution–
it’s good enough. Now just to complete the
story, here is the resolution that it calculates by
default. So the resolution between peak three and
the little peak is here. The resolution between peak
three and peak two is here. So a simple solution
to the question. And it’s a very,
very good question. So I appreciate it because
it does come up periodically. Great. Thank you. What is the difference between
Apply Method Set and Integrate button? Great question. So part of the answer to that
also is what type of data are we dealing with, OK? But let’s demonstrate
the difference. That’s the nice thing about
working with the live software. I can just easily show
you the difference here. OK. So here’s a sample set. And let’s see here. Let’s get a method set. And let’s put in a
processing method. Here’s the one we made. There it is, November 15th. OK, terrific. Now we’ll save this
method set, and we’ll call it November 15th. OK. So what’s the difference? And so the difference
is the following. If I click Integrate– oh wait, let me
open the method set. That would help. Sorry. There it is. OK. So if I click
Integrate, then it only applies the peak detection
and integration parameters of the processing method. Notice there’s no name. It just has a peak with
an area and a height. If I apply the method set,
then it opens the method set and it follows the
instructions in the method set. Now it says, OK, I’m going
to apply the method set, and I’m going to integrate
and calibrate, or integrate and quantitate, whether
it’s a standard or a sample. Now the peak has a name. Of course, it’s looking
for the other peaks and they’re not there. But if I go to the
next chromatogram and I apply the method set, now
everything is as it should be. This is also critical
if I’m working with– this is not PDA or
MS data, but if I’m working with any
derived channels that I’ve defined in the channel
table, applying the method set will tell Empower to look
in the channel table. And if there were extra channels
with particular processing methods, it would follow
whatever instructions are here in this table. So it’s going to depend
a little bit on the data that you’re working with. But even this simple
data, integrating simply applies the detection and
integration parameters. It does no more than that. Good question, thanks. How does Fill From Result work? So what happens–
you saw me using that just a little while ago, right? So let’s clear the integration. Let’s go to the Components tab. And let’s wipe out the table. So once I integrate
something, if I want to give the peaks names, I
could go to the Components tab in the processing method,
and I could manually fill out the information. That’s too time consuming. Because then you’re
going to have to put in the retention time,
and the retention time window, and a bunch of
other information. What the Fill From
Result tool does it says, OK, I’m going to look
at the chromatogram, and for every integrated
peak that you’ve got, I’m going to fill in a
line of information– at least the basic necessary
information that I’m going to need in the
future, like the retention time and the
retention time window, so that moving
ahead in the future, I can identify the
peaks properly. So when I click
the tool, it asks me this question about
cross-channel internal standard processing. We’re not doing that here. So if I say no, it populates the
table with generic peak names, retention time, retention
time window, match criteria. And if I’m going to do
calibration and quantitation, some very basic
information, like I want to have the
x-axis of my calc or the amount the y-axis
area and I want a linear fit. Of course, you can
modify these things. But at least you have
something to start with. Of course, now I could come
in and I could say, you know, this is an impurity– if I could type properly– and this is analyte one, analyte
two, and so forth and so on, so that when I go back to
the main window and I click calibrate, now it
applies the names. So that Fill From Result tool
is really a nice little tool. It saves the tedious step
of filling in line by line information about my peak. Great question. OK. Where are we now? OK. Here’s another question. Can I calibrate and quantitate
my standards in one processing? I do not want to go to
process a standards, then go to alter sample
and change the sample type to unknown, and reprocess. Is this possible? Yes, it is possible. And I have had this
question before. So let’s do the following. I am going to View
as Injections, and I am going to take
my standard injections to illustrate how to do this. I’m going to make a
process only sample set. You don’t have to do this. I’m just doing this
to simplify my answer. And I’ll show you
what you do here. It’s pretty straightforward. OK. So what I’m going
to do is I’m not going to process any
of these just yet. And then what I’m
going to do is I’m going to add my clear
calibration line, going to calibrate, and
I’m going to quantitate. And I’m going to use my
November the 15th method set that we made. And for the label
reference, I don’t really need it in this case. But if it was part of
a bigger sample set, I would put that in. OK? So there is my calibrate
and quantitate. So what this is
going to do is it’s going to tell
Empower to calibrate the standards– generate
calibration curves– and then go back and quantitate. So let’s go to the Amount tool. And I am going to copy my peak
names from my new processing method, which is November 15th. and that’s all done and good. And I click OK. And I save all the changes. Yes. Then I take this,
right-click, Process. And we’re going to
process it with the method set called November 15th. Actually, we don’t
even need to do that. We can just say
acquisition method set. That’s good enough. It’s going to follow the
instructions in the table. Oh. What happened to
my window there? There it is. Sorry. All right. So let’s go look
at the result set. OK. So what has happened
is because I’ve told Empower OK, Empower,
calibrate and quantitate the standards, it’s going to
process each standard twice. Of course, I have
to add to my table my amount or my concentration. I don’t have those visible. Sorry about that OK. So there’s my amount
as a standard. And if you’re unclear,
go into the properties of the chromatogram. And you can go
over to the legend. And then you can click on– I think it’s under Sample. Where is it? Goodness. There’s one that
says Processed As. Well, I can’t find
it for the moment. But there is one that
says Processed As. Here it is. It’s under Results. OK. That we don’t need. There we are. So in the one case, it
processed it as a standard. And in the next case, it
processed it as a sample. So here is the
standard value, which was 0.02 that we put into
the component editor. And if I go to the next
one, here it is as a sample. And it does that for
every single standard that you told it to do so. So it can calibrate and
quantitate in one go, without having to
change anything and without having to reprocess. So that’s a very good question. Thanks for that question. Let’s see. How are we doing for time? I think we have time
for one more here. Are there any more? Let me scroll down here. How can I be sure I’m seeing
the final result for a sample if I have processed
multiple times? This is a very good question. I know particularly when you are
reviewing large amounts of data and you want to see is this
the last result, sometimes it can be a bit tricky. So what I have done– and
I will show this to you– is we have a couple of
custom fields that I made. And it’s actually
quite simple to do. The first one I
called Final Result. And let me show that to you. So Final Result is another
intersample calculation. And all I did was– again, remember the syntax is
label.injectionnumber.channel.– in this case, I’m going to
use the mathematical function of max. Result number is a
standard field in Empower. So I’m basically saying
give me the maximum result number for a particular sample. So if I processed it five times,
five would be the maximum. OK? So that’s the first custom
field that’s involved. And then the second
one that’s involved is called Latest
Result. And then I’ll show you how this works. Which I don’t see here. Oh, yeah, that’s because
I called it Result Latest. Sorry. All right, there it is. So the first custom
field just says, hey, what’s the
maximum result number that I have for that sample. OK. If I did it five
times, it’s a five. This is a result field but,
again, using Boolean logic. And all it says is
if the final result equals the number of results
stored, tell me it’s OK. Tell me that that is indeed the
last result for that sample. So it’s again the
simple Boolean logic where we’re saying if this field
equals the number of results stored, all is good. All right. So what happens is if we take
a look, and we go to results, and let’s take a look. You can see over here. I made a view filter
in the results table that shows me the result number,
the number of results stored, the final result. Is the result the latest? Here in this particular case,
the result number is 86. There are 86 stored. Therefore, the final is 86. And it’s OK. You notice the one before
it says no because it’s not. So I know we’re running
out of time here. But again, if anybody has
any questions about this, please reach out to me. Because this could
save you some time in reviewing all of your
results at the end of the day. All right. So I’m going to stop
the Empower screen here. And let me get rid of that. So where are we in the slides. Let me just get back
to where we were here. Because one last thing that
I want to talk to you about and we can wrap up. OK. A little summary, couple of
points, and one thing I do want to show you. We are considering, and
we need your opinion as to whether or not the Tip of
the Week, should we do videos? Today, you know, you go
to the Tip of the Week, you see the text
with the screenshots. And we have been talking about
possibly doing them as videos. So not doing away with
the current format. But maybe supplementing
it with some video tips so that you could see how I
click through the screens. We’re also fast
approaching tip number 100. And we’re going to do
something special for that. So stay tuned. Finally, a number of you
have reached out to me and you’ve said,
you know, I go out. I see the list of tips. But I can’t search. And no, you can’t. So we have a Waters Knowledge
Base that was created– I think it was last year. I could be wrong. And that’s actually a
searchable database. And what I’m doing is
I’m taking the tips, and I’m moving them
into this database so that you can
go to the database and you can search
there for those tips. So there’s a couple
of ways of getting to this particular database. You could do it from
the Waters website. That’s one way. So if you go to the
Service and Support, you will see the
Waters Knowledge Base. And when you click on
that, three main areas and informatics
right in the middle. That’s the one you’ll
want to select. And here in informatics, we
have Empower Tip of the Week. So with a couple of
clicks, you’ll get there. If you click on that, now
you’ll get to all of the tips. Not all of them because I
haven’t moved all of them over into the database yet. I think there is about 18
or 20 of them in there. And as I said, we’re
getting close to 100. But you do have a search bar. And then you’d be able
to search on a topic to find a tip that
would be appropriate. This knowledge base has a
lot of other information besides just my tips. So, you know, stuff about
instruments, and methods, and so forth and so on. There’s a lot of
information here. So as a customer, you know,
you can take advantage of that. You don’t need to be
logged in with Waters. You can just go
and you can search. All right. So I think that
brings us to the end. We thank you for your attention. And again, this is the first
time that we’ve run this. So I hope it’s been useful. I hope you’ve
learned some things. Don’t be shy. Please reach out to
me with questions. We should have a new tip that’s
probably been posted today, which I think is tip 95. So stay tuned for that. And again, thank you so much
for being with us today. We appreciate it. Take care and all the best.


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