{♫Intro♫} Stars explode and die all the time, but they’re
so faint and far away that on Earth, we rarely notice. Dying stars we can see with the naked eye
are few and far between. Luckily for us, though, three astronomers
announced at the American Astronomical Society meeting last week that in not too long, we’re
in for a treat. They found that, as early as the 2060s, two
stars are going to merge, and that event will be so bright that we’ll be able to see it
with the naked eye! The 2060s might seem like a long way off for
us mere mortals, but it will definitely be spectacular. Because this explosion won’t be your typical
supernova. It will be something completely new to us. The system is called V Sagittae. It’s roughly 7800 light-years from here,
and it’s classified as a Cataclysmic Variable, or CV. That means it’s a binary star system made
of a relatively Sun-like star and a white dwarf. That’s the leftover core of a star that
wasn’t massive enough to undergo a supernova at the end of its life. And these two objects are close enough that
the white dwarf’s gravity pulls matter off its companion, stealing it and gaining mass
as a result. In normal cases, these systems are mind-boggling. Because eventually, the gluttonous white dwarf
will steal so much matter that it either explodes, or its outer layer gets blasted into space. But V Sagittae is special. It’s the only CV we know of whose white
dwarf is less massive than its companion. About four times less massive, too. This imbalance causes some weird effects,
but ultimately, it means the stars in this system aren’t in a stable orbit. They’re spiraling toward each other, and
eventually, they’re going to collide. Recently, this team analyzed data about the
system’s light and position going back to 1890. And they confirmed V Sagittae is in the middle
of this death spiral, and that somewhere between 2067 and 2099, the two objects will officially
merge. That will create a new light in our night
sky for more than a month! Right now, this system is too dim to be visible. But during that month, it will be as bright
as Sirius — the current brightest star we can see after dark. And it could even briefly be as bright as
Venus, the brightest night-time object besides the Moon — or the International Space Station,
depending on the timing. When it’s all over, this system will end
up as a single star, and it’s not clear if we’ll be able to see it without a really
fancy telescope. So most of us might not have long to see this
for ourselves. But whatever time we /do/ have will still
be amazing. Of course, while 80 years is barely a blink
of an eye on cosmic time scales, 2099 is pretty far away… So, here’s hoping that merger happens sooner
rather than later. Because, let’s be honest: I’d really like
to be around to see it. While we wait for the future to arrive, though,
let’s take a moment and look back to the past. Because this Monday in the journal PNAS, scientists
announced the oldest solid matter ever found on Earth. It’s a compound called silicon carbide,
and it formed hundreds of millions of years before our solar system was born. And, as if that weren’t cool enough, it
also gives astronomers some clues about our galactic history. Most of the solids in our solar system — things
like dust and rocks — condensed from gas about 4.6 billion years ago, about the time
the Sun formed. But a tiny percent of dust was already there,
just hanging out. Astronomers call them presolar grains, but
you’ll sometimes hear the more poetic term “stardust”. That’s because they formed in the outer
atmospheres of red giant stars in the last stages of their lives. As the stars died and shed their outer layers,
the grains entered interstellar space and got struck by cosmic rays — high-energy,
charged particles. That caused reactions that changed the elements
the grains were made of. Eventually, these tiny pieces wandered into
our neighborhood. When our solar system started forming, some
of them got encased by new solid matter, which protected them against further damage and
the effects of time. While a lot of that matter went on to form
planets, plenty was left over, free to hit Earth in the form of meteorites. And so, billions of years later, we’ve started
finding them. Presolar grains are really rare and tiny — typically
a few millionths of a meter in size. But they do turn up. The meteorite containing these record-breaking
grains landed in Australia back in 1969. And recently, scientists took a fragment of
that space rock, crushed it up, and used acid to dissolve all but the silicon carbide grains. Then, they calculated the age of those grains
by measuring how much of a special isotope of neon they contained. That amount determined how long the grains
had been exposed to cosmic rays before getting sealed up. Most of the pieces had traveled through space
for less than 300 million years before being incorporated into the early solar system. So, that would put them around 4.9 billion
years old at most. But a few other pieces had traveled for more
than a billion years. Making them more than 5.5 billion years old. It’s those little guys that set the record
for the oldest solids on the planet. But don’t get me wrong: Those younger grains
are important, too. Their abundance supports the hypothesis that
our galaxy’s production of stars isn’t constant. That there was a surge in star formation about
seven billion years ago that produced the stars needed to create these grains. And that’s important, because researchers
are still trying to figure out what star formation has looked like over time. And these grains could help them learn more. So it’s nice to know you can be important
without having to break records. Excellent motivational message, universe! Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow
Space News! Before you go, we wanted to let you know that
our pin of the month is currently available! This month, it’s celebrating Explorer 1,
the first satellite the U.S. ever launched into space! We’ve come so far. The pin is pretty rad, but it’s only available
during the month of January — so if you want one, you’ve only got a couple weeks
left. To check it out, you can go to DFTBA.com/scishow
or find the pin in the merch shelf below. Thanks {♫Outro♫}


rajeswar jana · January 18, 2020 at 8:19 am

I was thinking about leaving early but this gave me a reason to stay maybe

Phil Laird · January 18, 2020 at 8:19 am

If it's 7800 light years away, that would mean that it happened eon's ago.

Jordan McNeil · January 18, 2020 at 8:22 am

My daughter loves scishow space because of Caitlin, way to go guys 🙂 thanks so much

No Subs · January 18, 2020 at 8:43 am


morenauer · January 18, 2020 at 8:49 am

I'll be dead by then.

nrsrymj · January 18, 2020 at 8:51 am

i didnt want to know about this awesome thing i likely wont see.

DagarCoH · January 18, 2020 at 8:57 am

When two stars collide,
the anger, the pain…

Adr Raz · January 18, 2020 at 9:04 am

Powerman 5000 foresaw that, but with the wrong celestial bodies.

Oo_ELECTRO_oO · January 18, 2020 at 9:09 am

89/121 years old, let's hope my naked eyes will be working….or that I'm even alive 😆

Slapchop LeDüge · January 18, 2020 at 9:14 am

You’re adorable! Thanks for the news!

Nec Robin · January 18, 2020 at 9:25 am

Star collision in 46 years, I should get up and get ready

Supgamer · January 18, 2020 at 9:26 am

hopefully 2068, cuz then i'd be 69

Christopher Fortner · January 18, 2020 at 10:07 am

Wrong Thumbnail theme? lol

Marijan · January 18, 2020 at 10:13 am

OH BOY! I can't wait until 2060. By that time, I'll be DEAD YEARS OLD!

Binish Manandhar · January 18, 2020 at 10:22 am

The mind boggling part is that this merge has actually already happened about 7800 years before.

abloogywoogywoo · January 18, 2020 at 10:23 am

That's what I find amazing and depressing about the universe, we really don't matter. A cosmic instant is an long time to us. A star dying will outlive us all. A death spiral will outlive most of us, happening between 2067 and 2099 in the future. Nothing disproves monotheism or egocentric beliefs faster than looking up at the night sky.

FutbolVinotinto21 · January 18, 2020 at 10:23 am

Didnt the collision already happen since the system is 7800 light years away? It’s just that the light hasn’t reached us yet

Benjamin Azmon · January 18, 2020 at 10:43 am

Forgive me if others have said it, but the thumb nail is using the scishow colors instead of the scishow space colors. Not a big deal but thought you’d like to know

Nathan Stevenson · January 18, 2020 at 11:09 am


So ah, guessing they don't pronounce their acronym

Roberto Ventilii · January 18, 2020 at 11:19 am

sorry, I'm out for 2060

Strong Force · January 18, 2020 at 11:49 am

3:51 nanometers are 10^-9. i think this should say micrometer 10^-6

Othun s Gungnir · January 18, 2020 at 12:04 pm

Wrong thumbnail template btw, I thought space made it to SciShow !
Then I was so confused when I realized it was in fact posted by SciShow Space

Matthew Dinse · January 18, 2020 at 12:17 pm

Calm down!

Vee Dragon · January 18, 2020 at 12:50 pm

The hosts enthusiasm is wonderful!

Dan X2 · January 18, 2020 at 12:54 pm

Featured on https://www.facebook.com/astralslate/

Apophis392 · January 18, 2020 at 12:56 pm

She talks about it future tense like it’s something that’s going to happen it… But didn’t it already happen and the light didn’t reach earth yet? How many light years away is the collision from Earth? 🤔

Mikel 666 · January 18, 2020 at 1:01 pm

great video

PureZOOKS · January 18, 2020 at 1:20 pm

Caitlin is the best host. Just listen to her enthusiasm

Δημήτρης Κοσμάς · January 18, 2020 at 1:44 pm

Πάλι το καρναβάλι; Έλεος πια! Λέει αστρονομικά νέα και κάνει σαν κωμικός, τι να πω;

SM96 · January 18, 2020 at 1:47 pm

So, no? Got ya!

June Blankenship · January 18, 2020 at 1:50 pm

Wouldn't a merger like that result in the white dwarf being pushed beyond the Chandrasakhar limit and thus a type 1a supernova?

Munden · January 18, 2020 at 1:52 pm

2060's I might still be around, but almost certainly not 2099. Life is short, future readers.

bzykolo bzyq · January 18, 2020 at 1:53 pm

Yup I've just set timer on my watch, just don't wanna miss it.

Craneman · January 18, 2020 at 1:54 pm

I'll be between 105 and 145. Do you think you can narrow that down a little?

rollmeister · January 18, 2020 at 1:57 pm

I decided to die at age 75. I will give myself longer.

Lima Funla · January 18, 2020 at 2:24 pm

I was thinking "Hmmm I'm gen z so, I'll be less than a hundred in 2099." Then I questioned myself "Do I really want to reach the ripe old age of 90+ just to be able to watch a future SciShow Space video about 2 stars colliding?"

John F · January 18, 2020 at 2:42 pm

Voice like nails on a blackboard. Terrible.

TheLA384 · January 18, 2020 at 3:08 pm

Maybe I'm too old for this channel, but the subjects are interesting. However the voice and facial expressions of this narrator are so annoyingly childish, i usually just quit the video and watch something else.

Shyamala Gondra · January 18, 2020 at 3:17 pm

Nooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo!I named my probe launched on 15 February 2020 in saidabad(India) explorer 1 too!

Jess Stuart · January 18, 2020 at 3:46 pm

3:48 1 nm is 1 Billionth of a meter. I'm a little disappointed nobody at sci-show caught this.

Walt R. Buck · January 18, 2020 at 4:01 pm

Well, you all enjoy that. Ill be dead by then.

ziv m · January 18, 2020 at 4:35 pm


Jason Webb · January 18, 2020 at 4:38 pm

Only 7,800 light years away. 2067-2099. Don't think I'll be alive to see this.

Scribbling Joe · January 18, 2020 at 4:48 pm

Why so Sirius?

BigNewGames · January 18, 2020 at 4:49 pm

Hmm, in 2012 didn't astrophysicists predict that the G2 gas cloud was going to stretch out and eventually merge and produce a light show when it got close to the black hole Sgr A* in the center of our galaxy? But instead the G2 gas cloud orbited the black hole and retained it's spherical shape and was barely affected? Don't you think that a similar prediction about the outcome and motion of these two stars would be just as inaccurate as the G2 gas cloud?

They are relying on one equation to make these predictions, Einstein's field equation. If Einstein's field equation describing the motion of mass via gravity was wrong before, what makes you think that it will be right this time?

Want to know what really will happen to the two stars? Nothing! They will orbit one another for an eternity while slowly moving away from each another, not get any closer over time.

Look at the evidence which supports my prediction! 1, The Earth and all the planets in our solar system are slowly moving away from our sun over time. 2, The G2 gas cloud did not merge with the black hole! 3, The motion of our sun is way too fast for general relativity to explain! 4, Gravity does not behave like it's predicted by general relativity.

Plain and simple. General relativity is not completely accurate at predicting the motion of mass! Sure it is able to predict the motion of small bodies like planets, moons and comets but it is not able to predict the motion of mass larger than a planet. There is not one star or galaxy in the universe where their motion can be predicted by general relativity! This means that general relativity is wrong, incorrect. Which translates to, GR is missing one or several variables. If every variable was addressed in Einstein's field equation then GR would be able to accurately predict the motion of all mass, not just planets and other small bodies.

I know what is missing from Einstein's field equation. That's why I can boldly predict that those stars will never collide!

I also predicted that they would discover the lensing of light was produced by an extremely HOT medium. I said the protons suspended around hot blue stars and between nearby galaxies would grow extremely hot and was the cause of light magnifying and or bending around them. Like a mirage in space, spacial mirage. The lensing of light has nothing to do with gravity or the mass of the heated medium (they pinned on dark matter) but because of it's combined shape. Similar to how light refracts in water and reflects off of hot pavement & desert sand. Gravity or missing mass plays no role in the spacial mirage! One of the predictions is the protons (hydrogen gas) causing the lensing effect should emit high energy gamma rays and X-rays and is how their heat is produced.

I would bet that astrophysicists and other scientists are taught to lie to common folks. Knowledge is power. So when you repeat their lie they have told you over and over you eventually believe it. Then when their predictions are shown to be incorrect they can simply say (God) did it, i.e., blame it on something that cannot be measured or observed like dark matter or dark energy. Use a wildcard that can be assigned any value to fit the observation so they can always retain their superior status of always being right, when in reality they got every one of their predictions wrong!

General relativity tried to predict the motion of our sun as it orbits the Milky Way's core. Using general relativity they predicted that our sun should be moving at about 1 mi/h. So they used the CMB radiation as a backdrop or state of rest for the rest of the universe. Then measured the shift in the wavelength of light from the stars in the Milky Way and determined that the sun and all the planets was moving at about 500,000 mi/h (+/- 50,000 mi/h) around the galaxy core.

General relativity was way off base! So they used the God factor or wildcard called dark matter. Claiming there must be missing mass in the galaxy. Every time observations do not match predictions they blame it on something that cannot be measured or observed. Why can't they just admit that observations DO NOT support general relativity? Go figure!

Ruan Kruger · January 18, 2020 at 4:55 pm

Serious question though. Does that mean that the stars have already merged in +- 5000BC and we'll only see the merge in 2060 because the light will only reach us then, or am I misunderstanding how light works in this case?

Paul C · January 18, 2020 at 5:03 pm

Loose some weight and you might watch it…

Zguy000 · January 18, 2020 at 5:09 pm

Who is this stupid woman?

Yu Tub · January 18, 2020 at 5:25 pm

so no some ancient prophecy that the world is going to end in 2020? like 2020-02-20 or 2020-12-20 you know lots of twos like the last time….

FlesHBoX · January 18, 2020 at 5:35 pm

woah…. Deja'vu

MR_Zoren · January 18, 2020 at 5:54 pm

i am just wating for 2077

J G · January 18, 2020 at 6:24 pm

Hmmm … perhaps someone will visit my resting place and tell me how it was. Sounds fun! Enjoy the show and learn as much as you can!!!

(The editing leaves something to be desired … your sentences are getting "clipped" together. Why are you in such a rush? Less than an additional five seconds of length would make this more understandable.)

Willem van de Beek · January 18, 2020 at 6:43 pm

Why is the thumbnail green and not the usual blue? I almost skipped it, because I thought it was a normal SciShow video.

that guy named dan · January 18, 2020 at 7:00 pm

PNAS journal. I laughed like i was 13 again. I know,i know,it means something else, but still.

samuel wheeler · January 18, 2020 at 7:08 pm

Caitlin is so wonderfully enthusiastic!

drunkalfuzzyness · January 18, 2020 at 7:20 pm

Great, can't wait until I am around 70 or 80 or so for that! I hope I survive by then!

Vadym Pyatko · January 18, 2020 at 8:41 pm

62 percent of us will die before

Nerys Ghemor · January 18, 2020 at 9:12 pm

Wow…I might actually be alive for this. Nice!!

Marc F. Nielssen · January 18, 2020 at 9:13 pm

I won't be around in 2067.
Humanity might still be around in 2099.

Ivana Tinkle · January 18, 2020 at 9:46 pm

voice like nails on a chalkboard

Thrillinois · January 18, 2020 at 10:13 pm

But if it's ~7800 light years away, didn't the merge already happened? And we're just about to see the light rays from the explosion ~7800 years ago?

Threw The Looking Glass · January 18, 2020 at 10:39 pm

ill be 70 something

Escanor · January 18, 2020 at 10:48 pm

why did video skip intro lol

John Smith · January 18, 2020 at 10:58 pm

Finally, a decent reason to live another 80 years. Thanks, SciShow

Diego Rodrigues de Souza · January 18, 2020 at 11:29 pm

Well, guess i have a reason to live after all

Sinisteris S. · January 19, 2020 at 12:14 am

Remember similar report, that 2020 or 2021 there will be unique supernova and prediction been proven wrong? Yeah, not getting hyped about this one either.

Vollick · January 19, 2020 at 12:39 am

hasnt it technically already happened then since it takes so long for light to get here from there?

TexasGTO · January 19, 2020 at 12:50 am

85% or more of the viewers will be dead by then. Just fyi

KendrickMan · January 19, 2020 at 2:01 am

wow no comments about how rad that pin is

Exdo Rme · January 19, 2020 at 2:48 am

Wow! A reason not to kill myself for the next few decades!

Jeffrey C · January 19, 2020 at 3:00 am

1969? Nice

Nicholas Gerken · January 19, 2020 at 3:06 am

File this under 'Events I probably won't be alive to witness'….

Rolando Tokes · January 19, 2020 at 3:28 am

I'm sorry but I think this need is really pretty. Like ur regular ol sweet science elementary teacher exited to do the lab of the day.

bkbug · January 19, 2020 at 3:42 am

You got me excited until I heard 2067. I'll be 97…Or dead.

RedLeader327 · January 19, 2020 at 6:13 am

Damn, I’ll be 80+ before I see that beautiful sky.

Johnny J · January 19, 2020 at 6:48 am

Caitlin is always so bubbly, I love her as a host.

Zach Crawford · January 19, 2020 at 7:38 am

Weird, when I was in the 3rd grade a classmate's dad came to our class to show us cool rocks (he was a geologist). He showed us one stone that was probably the size of an adult's pinky nail, it was black fairly shiny and crystalline looking (so it wasn't just obsidian anyway). He claimed it was a black diamond, that his team found in a meteorite that likely came from the crust of a dead star and that it was dated to be ~7 billion years old "much older than our sun". This blew my mind and I never forgot and it help cement my interest in science. Now I'm kind of bummed to find out that either he was lying or that a lot of really cool discoveries just fall through the cracks or both. I'm not sure which answer makes me sadder.

Leandro Escobar · January 19, 2020 at 9:35 am

Her eye brow piercing looks ridiculous.

Robert Kelly · January 19, 2020 at 10:14 am

Can they make it sooner? I’d like to see it before I die.

Gene King · January 19, 2020 at 12:59 pm

it happened a long time ago, light takes time to travel. thought this was a science show lol

Not an Illuminati spy · January 19, 2020 at 1:17 pm

I keep a journal about my P-NAS, also.

Censtudios · January 19, 2020 at 2:14 pm

Wasn't there another system 1800 lightyears away that's supposed to collide with each other around 2022-2024? I waited 5 years for that, until they announced recently that it's not gonna happen anyway. Now they want us to wait 40+ years?

MozartificeR · January 19, 2020 at 3:00 pm

The bible is teaching our sun is only 6 thousand years old.

Shyamala Gondra · January 19, 2020 at 3:08 pm

Scishow space please tell scishow kids and when Jesse and sweaks come to the fort .I miss them 😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭😭see the comments in the previous episode

K Zed · January 19, 2020 at 3:18 pm

Someone actually called a journal P NAS…?

NomadUniverse · January 19, 2020 at 5:00 pm

Well. Thats a huge downer. I know I'll be dead before then :/

NomadUniverse · January 19, 2020 at 5:03 pm

We use silicon carbide in metal working industries for grinding wheels.

snowfuca · January 19, 2020 at 5:17 pm

shes annoying

Winning117 · January 19, 2020 at 6:02 pm

Scishow thumbnail instead of scishow space thumbnail 😱

Denise Roosevelt · January 20, 2020 at 7:41 am

in 2099 i would be 109 years old. I could definitly make it into that age, but dont want to.

mark vietti · January 20, 2020 at 8:19 am

cant wait to watch from the grave

Z Z · January 20, 2020 at 9:31 am

I <3 Caitlin!

AIRLINENA · January 20, 2020 at 12:28 pm

Anything would look better than watching this lady. Bye bye 👋

Zepherius Cole · January 20, 2020 at 6:34 pm

V saggittae collided approx 1050 years ago.

Kew Akl · January 20, 2020 at 10:46 pm

@3:38 space bullet

John Johansen · January 21, 2020 at 3:07 am

Hold back on the caffeine, please!

Kuckoo · January 21, 2020 at 4:49 am

Yah, I'll be dead by that time.
But hey, enjoy the show, grandkids!

Brandon Corby · January 21, 2020 at 6:02 am

Pretty sure I saw Caitlin at SeaTac Airport in January little mad I did get a photo.

quest 77051 · January 21, 2020 at 2:03 pm

could the star and white drarf merged already and we have not received the light yet?

Yaria Samavan Carlan · January 21, 2020 at 5:21 pm

My fav host 😍 You keep me smiling the entire time. 😊

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